Good science provides real, measurable evidence of the benefits, risks and costs of disinfection methods, fluoridation and any other water treatment process. Current research shows that believing in such claims increases gender bias in evaluations of others and backlash effects against females who violate gender norms. Is it reasonable to believe that fluoridation support would continue if the evidence actually demonstrated, beyond all reasonable doubt, that exposure to low levels of the fluoride ion really caused significant harm, even if significant benefits could be demonstrated? As you research this complicated topic, be aware that information presented by fluoridation opponents is neither balanced or complete - it is meticulously designed to create fear of fluoridation and a distrust of all responsible parties. Fear sells ideas just as effectively as it sells products. One explanation is that men tend to externalize stress while women tend to internalize it. There were high rates of debt and psychiatric symptoms related to gambling observed in both groups of men and women.
Sex differences in human memory The results from research on sex differences in memory are mixed and inconsistent, with some studies showing no difference, and others showing a female or male advantage. Voyer from the University of New Brunswick , drew from 97 years of effect sizes and samples stemming from the year to Haslam and colleagues found that emphasis on the biological causes of sex differences in intelligence suggests inevitability and fixedness, creating essentialist beliefs about gender that deepen social divides. Instead, it affects the sensory and motor cortices such as the motor and premotor cortex and primary visual cortex. Studies have shown either no differences, or advantages for both sexes, with most showing a slight advantage for males. Males tend to show greater variability on many traits, for example having both highest and lowest scores on tests of cognitive abilities,     though this may differ between countries. This section relies too much on references to primary sources. In , the National Science Foundation reported that, on average, girls perform as well as boys on standardized math tests, while boys are overrepresented on both ends of the spectrum. Aggression is closely linked with cultural definitions of "masculine" and "feminine". These symptoms would yield diagnoses based on criteria for agoraphobia, social phobia, and simple phobia. He also contested that not only can there be individual variations that studies consistently recruit, but that these studies wouldn't be representative of the general population especially if the participants only represent college students. The sex differences are greater for muscle mass and especially for upper body muscle mass. In a few females have greater variance. While girls and boys cry at roughly the same amount at age 12, by age 18, women generally cry four times more than men, which could be explained by higher levels of prolactin. Exposure to the stereotypic commercials resulted in women underperforming on a subsequent math test and avoiding math items in favor of verbal items. Consider the fact that community drinking water disinfection with chlorine or chloramine forces everyone who drinks the tap water to ingest chlorine or chloramine and variable levels of disinfection byproducts that numerous studies have shown might cause cancer, miscarriages and birth defects in some community members. This may be explained by the different social roles women and men have in different cultures, and by the status and power men and women hold in different societies, as well as the different cultural values various societies hold. There were high rates of debt and psychiatric symptoms related to gambling observed in both groups of men and women. Accumulated scientific evidence should - and does - drive discussions about what levels of a drinking water additive provide health benefits or reduce health risks - not only of the fluoride ion but chemicals designed to kill pathogens, adjust pH, regulate hardness or any other water treatment process. Variability hypothesis Some studies have identified the degree of IQ variance as a difference between males and females. Male gamblers were also more likely to report a longer duration of gambling than women. Male gamblers were more likely to report a drug problem or being arrested on account of gambling. In situations like a wedding or a funeral, the activated emotion norms apply to and constrain every person in the situation. He said there was a need for better research designs instead of summing up through meta-analysis. In this section I provide a very specific example of how fluoridation opponents use fear and the misrepresentation of study results to manufacture a problem where none exists and sell the resulting illusion to the public as fact. A performance difference in mathematics on the SAT exists in favor of males, though differences in mathematics course performance measures favor females. This is a disingenuous argument.
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