Persian Constitutional Revolution The growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution — The British considered an armed invasion, but U. The revolution led to the establishment of a Parliament and approval of the first constitution. The land reform, instead of allying the peasants with the government, produced large numbers of independent farmers and landless laborers who became loose political cannons, with no feeling of loyalty to the Shah. The Shah's reforms more than quadrupled the combined size of the two classes that had posed the most challenges to his monarchy in the past — the intelligentsia and the urban working class. Part of the reason for launching the White Revolution was that the Shah hoped to get rid of the landlords' influence and create a new base of support among the peasants and working class. A fall into communism and a "second China" terrified the Dulles brothers. It consisted of several elements including:
The British demanded punishment by the World Court and the United Nations, sent warships to the Persian Gulf and finally imposed a crushing embargo. Consequently, within the decades following the establishment of the new parliament, a number of critical events took place. The Shah's reforms more than quadrupled the combined size of the two classes that had posed the most challenges to his monarchy in the past — the intelligentsia and the urban working class. Truman refused his support. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi's father, Reza Shah , replaced Islamic laws with Western ones, which forbade traditional Islamic clothing, separation of the sexes and veiling of women's faces with the niqab. The British asked Truman for help; Truman, however, sympathized with nationalist movements like Mosaddegh's and had nothing but contempt for old-style imperialists like those who ran Anglo-Iranian. In their eyes, any country not decisively allied with the United States was a potential enemy. Iran had immense oil wealth, a long border with the Soviet Union and a nationalist Prime Minister. What the Shah did not expect was that the White Revolution led to new social tensions that helped create many of the problems the Shah had been trying to avoid. Mohammad Reza Shah's reform programme was built especially to weaken those classes that supported the traditional system. Mosaddegh nationalized the Anglo-Iranian oil company and became a national hero. However, he would avoid entering into political issues, as did other religious leaders who followed him. Instead, it paved the way for an Islamic Revolution. Operation Ajax was born, deposing the only democratic government Iran ever had. Persian Constitutional Revolution[ edit ] Main article: Although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. All British diplomats and agents had to leave the country. It consisted of several elements including: Leftist and Islamist groups attacked his government often from outside Iran as they were suppressed within for violating the Iranian constitution, political corruption, and the political oppression by the SAVAK secret police. Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. It was the most profitable British business in the world. In , dozens were killed and hundreds injured in the Goharshad Mosque rebellion. The clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the Tobacco protest. Like his father's government, the Shah's was known for its autocracy , its focus on modernization and Westernization and for its disregard for religious  and democratic measures in Iran's constitution. President in November changed the U.
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