The doctrine of informed consent should be contrasted with the general doctrine of medical consent, which applies to assault or battery. Southam used HeLa cells to inject into cancer patients and Ohio State Penitentiary inmates without informed consent to determine if people could become immune to cancer and if cancer could be transmitted. In the absence of a proxy, the medical practitioner is expected to act in the patient's best interests until a proxy can be found. Here, research often involves low or no risk for participants, unlike in many medical experiments. Hospital systems and research organizations are adopting an electronic way of capturing informed consents to enable indexing, to improve comprehension, search and retrieval of consent data, thus enhancing the ability to honor to patient intent and identify willing research participants. The only effective way to establish normal patterns of growth and metabolism is to do research on infants and young children.
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