For fracture risk assessment, any well-validated technique can be used, including measurements of more than one site where this has been shown to improve the assessment of risk. Addition of the percentage compared to a reference population. Vertebral or femoral strength as estimated by QCT-based FEA can be used to monitor age- and treatment-related changes. Comply with government inspections, radiation surveys and regulatory requirements. Women discontinuing estrogen should be considered for bone density testing according to the indications listed above.
Serial BMD Measurements Serial BMD testing can be used to determine whether treatment should be started on untreated patients, because significant loss may be an indication for treatment. Serial BMD testing can monitor response to therapy by finding an increase or stability of bone density. TBS is associated with major osteoporotic fracture risk in postmenopausal women with type II diabetes. Results from skeletal sites that are not technically valid. Z-Score Reference Database Z-scores should be population specific where adequate reference data exist. Cross-Calibration of DXA Systems When changing hardware, but not the entire system, or when replacing a system with the same technology manufacturer and model , cross-calibration should be performed by having one technologist do 10 phantom scans, with repositioning, before and after hardware change. A repeat precision assessment should be done if a new DXA system is installed. The Genant visual semi-quantitative method is the current clinical technique of choice for diagnosing vertebral fracture with VFA. If a DXA facility has more than one technologist, an average precision error combining data from all technologists should be used to establish precision error and LSC for the facility, provided the precision error for each technologist is within a pre-established range of acceptable performance. Severity of deformity may be confirmed by morphometric measurement if desired. Two or more mild grade 1 deformities without any moderate or severe grade 2 or 3 deformities Lesions in vertebrae that cannot be attributed to benign causes Vertebral deformities in a patient with a known history of a relevant malignancy Equivocal fractures Sclerotic or lytic changes, or findings suggestive of conditions other than osteoporosis Note: Disease or condition associated with bone loss. Anyone being considered for pharmacologic therapy. Recommendations for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Anyone being treated, to monitor treatment effect. VFA is designed to detect vertebral fractures and not other abnormalities. Vertebral Fracture Assessment Nomenclature Vertebral Fracture Assessment VFA is the correct term to denote densitometric spine imaging performed for the purpose of detecting vertebral fractures. Risk factors including information regarding previous non-traumatic fractures. Comply with government inspections, radiation surveys and regulatory requirements. TBS should not be used alone to determine treatment recommendations in clinical practice. Any use of relative fracture risk must specify the population of comparison e. Manufacturers should continue to use their own databases for the lumbar spine as the reference standard for T-scores If local reference data are available they should be used to calculate only Z-scores but not T-scores. To perform a precision analysis: TBS is associated with major osteoporotic fracture risk in men over the age of 50 years. Specific recommendations for evaluation of secondary osteoporosis.
Video about demonstration of different sex positions:
Sex Positions to Make Her Climax
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